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RFC 8465

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Using the Mobile Equipment Identity (MEID) URN as an Instance ID

 


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                   R. Atarius, Ed.
Request for Comments: 8465                                September 2018
Category: Informational
ISSN: 2070-1721


    Using the Mobile Equipment Identity (MEID) URN as an Instance ID

Abstract

   This document specifies how the Uniform Resource Name (URN) namespace
   reserved for the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)
   identities and its Namespace Specific String (NSS) for the Mobile
   Equipment Identity (MEID) can be used as an Instance ID.  The purpose
   of this Instance ID is to fulfill the requirements for defining how a
   specific URN needs to be constructed and used in the "+sip.instance"
   Contact header field parameter for outbound behavior.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8465.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  3GPP2 Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  User Agent Client Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  User Agent Server Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  3GPP/3GPP2 SIP Registrar Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8

1.  Introduction

   This document specifies how the Uniform Resource Name (URN) namespace
   reserved for Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)
   identities and its Namespace Specific String (NSS) for the Mobile
   Equipment Identity (MEID) as specified in RFC 8464 [10] can be used
   as an Instance ID as specified in RFC 5626 [4] and also as used by
   RFC 5627 [5].

   RFC 5626 [4] specifies the "+sip.instance" Contact header field
   parameter that contains a URN as specified in RFC 8141 [6].  The
   Instance ID uniquely identifies a specific User Agent (UA) instance.
   This Instance ID is used as specified in RFC 5626 [4] so that the
   Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) registrar (as specified in RFC 3261
   [2]) can recognize that the contacts from multiple registrations
   correspond to the same UA.  The Instance ID is also used as specified
   by RFC 5627 [5] to create Globally Routable User Agent URIs (GRUUs)
   that can be used to uniquely address a UA when multiple UAs are
   registered with the same Address of Record (AoR).

   RFC 5626 [4] requires that a UA SHOULD create a Universally Unique
   Identifier (UUID) URN as specified in RFC 4122 [9] as its Instance ID
   but allow for the possibility to use other URN schemes.

   RFC 5626 [4] states:

      If a URN scheme other than UUID is used, the UA MUST only use URNs
      for which an RFC (from the IETF stream) defines how the specific
      URN needs to be constructed and used in the "+sip.instance"
      Contact header field parameter for outbound behavior.

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   This specification meets this requirement by specifying how the 3GPP2
   MEID URN is used in the "+sip.instance" Contact header field
   parameter for outbound behavior and RFC 8464 [10] specifies how the
   3GPP2 MEID URN is constructed.

   The 3GPP2 MEID URN is a URN for the MEID a globally unique identifier
   that identifies mobile devices used in the 3GPP2 networks.  The MEID
   allocation is managed by the 3GPP2 to ensure that the MEID values are
   globally unique.  Details of the formatting of the MEID as a URN are
   specified in RFC 8464 [10] and the definition of the MEID is
   contained in 3GPP2 S.R0048-A [13].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [1] [7] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as
   shown here.

3.  Background

   Mobile communication has been rapidly improved from low-bit-rate
   circuit-switched systems to the higher-data-rate packet-switched
   system.  The packet-switched system has added the mobile capability
   of Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity; thereby, the IP Multimedia
   Subsystem (IMS) have made SIP-based calls and IP multimedia sessions
   from mobile devices possible.

   3GPP2 defines High Rate Packet Data (HRPD) with high data rates, and
   it dispenses with the 1x Circuit Switched (1xCS) infrastructure.
   This means that with HRPD networks, voice calls will need to be
   conducted using IP and IMS.  However, SIP-based IMS networks will
   take a great many years from the time of writing to transition to the
   use of all IP; mobile devices will need to operate in both IP/SIP/IMS
   mode and circuit-switched mode.  This means that calls and sessions
   will need to be handed over between IP/SIP/IMS mode and circuit-
   switched mode mid-call or mid-session.  To achieve this, the mobile
   device needs to simultaneously communicate via both the IP/SIP/IMS
   domain and the circuit-switched domain.

   To meet this need, 3GPP2 has specified how to maintain voice-session
   continuity between the IP/SIP/IMS domain and the circuit-switched
   domain in 3GPP2 S.X0042-A [14].

   In order for the mobile device to access SIP/IMS voice service via
   the circuit-switched domain, 3GPP2 has specified that a Mobile
   Switching Center (MSC) server will control mobile voice call setup

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   over the circuit-switched radio access while establishing the
   corresponding voice session in the core network using SIP/IMS.  The
   specified MSC server operates either via an IMS Media Gateway Control
   Function (MGCF) or directly if it is enhanced by SIP interface.  To
   enable this, the mobile device MUST be identified in both the 1xCS
   and IP/SIP/IMS domains.  The only mobile device identifier that is
   transportable using 1xCS signaling is the MEID; therefore, the
   Instance ID included by the MGCF or the MSC server and the Instance
   ID directly included by the mobile device both need to be based on
   the MEID.

   Additionally in order to meet the above requirements, the same MEID
   that is obtained from the circuit-switched signaling by the MSC
   server needs to be obtainable from SIP signaling so that it can be
   determined that both the SIP signaling and circuit-switched signaling
   originate from the same mobile device.

4.  3GPP2 Use Cases

   1.  The mobile device includes its MEID in the SIP REGISTER request
       so that the SIP registrar can perform a check of the Equipment
       Identity Register (EIR) to verify if this mobile device is
       allowed or barred from accessing the network for non-emergency
       services (e.g., because it has been stolen).  If the mobile
       device is not allowed to access the network for non-emergency
       services, the SIP registrar can reject the registration.  Thus, a
       barred mobile device is prevented from accessing the network for
       non-emergency services.

   2.  The mobile device includes its MEID in SIP INVITE requests used
       to establish emergency sessions.  This is so that the Public
       Safety Answering Point (PSAP) can obtain the MEID of the mobile
       device for identification purposes if required by regulations.

   3.  The inclusion by the mobile device of its MEID in SIP INVITE
       requests used to establish emergency sessions is also used in the
       cases of unauthenticated emergency sessions to enable the network
       to identify the mobile device.  This is especially important if
       the unauthenticated emergency session is handed over from the
       packet-switched domain to the circuit-switched domain.  In this
       scenario, the MEID is the only identifier that is common to both
       domains.  The Emergency Access Transfer Function (EATF), which
       coordinates the call transfer between the domains, can thus use
       the MEID to identify that the circuit-switched call is from the
       same mobile device that was in the emergency session in the
       packet-switched domain.

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5.  User Agent Client Procedures

   A single mode 3GPP2 User Agent Client (UAC), which uses only 3GPP2
   technology to transmit and receive voice or data, has an MEID as
   specified in 3GPP2 S.R0048-A [13].  The single mode 3GPP2 UAC that is
   registering with a 3GPP2 IMS network includes in the "sip.instance"
   media feature tag the 3GPP2 MEID URN according to the syntax
   specified in RFC 8464 [10] when performing the registration
   procedures specified in RFC 5626 [4] or RFC 5627 [5] (or any other
   procedure requiring the inclusion of the "sip.instance" media feature
   tag).

   A UAC MUST NOT use the 3GPP2 MEID URN as an Instance ID except when
   registering with a 3GPP2 IMS network.  When a UAC is operating in IMS
   mode, it will obtain the domain of the carrier's IMS network to
   register with, from the Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC),
   preconfiguration, or the network at the time of establishing the
   Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context.  These three methods are carrier
   specific and are only performed by the carrier IMS networks.  The UAC
   will also obtain the address of the IMS edge proxy to send the
   REGISTER request containing the MEID using information elements in
   the Attach response when it attempts to connect to the carrier's
   packet data network.  When registering with a non-3GPP or non-3GPP2
   IMS network, a UAC SHOULD use a UUID as an Instance ID as specified
   in RFC 5626 [4].

   A UAC MUST NOT include the "sip.instance" media feature tag
   containing the 3GPP2 MEID URN in the Contact header field of non-
   REGISTER requests except when the request is related to an emergency
   session.  Regulations can require that the MEID be provided to the
   PSAP.  Any future exceptions to this prohibition require an RFC that
   addresses how privacy is not violated by such usage.

6.  User Agent Server Procedures

   A User Agent Server (UAS) MUST NOT include its "sip.instance" media
   feature tag containing the 3GPP2 MEID URN in the Contact header field
   of responses except when the response is related to an emergency
   session.  Regulations can require the MEID to be provided to the
   PSAP.  Any future exceptions to this prohibition require an RFC that
   addresses how privacy is not violated by such usage.

7.  3GPP/3GPP2 SIP Registrar Procedures

   In 3GPP/3GPP2 IMS, when the SIP Registrar receives in the Contact
   header field a "sip.instance" media feature tag containing the 3GPP2
   MEID URN according to the syntax specified in RFC 8464 [10], the SIP
   registrar follows the procedures specified in RFC 5626 [4].  The MEID

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   URN MAY be validated as described in the RFC 8464 [10].  If the UA
   indicates that it supports the extension in RFC 5627 [5] and the SIP
   Registrar allocates a GRUU according to the procedures specified in
   RFC 5627 [5], the Instance ID MUST be obfuscated when creating the
   "gr" parameter in order not to reveal the MEID to other UAs when the
   public GRUU is included in non-REGISTER requests and responses.  3GPP
   TS 24.229 [11] subclause 5.4.7A.2 specifies the mechanism for
   obfuscating the MEID when creating the "gr" parameter.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

9.  Security Considerations

   Since MEIDs, like other formats of Instance IDs, can be correlated to
   a user, they are personally identifiable information and MUST be
   treated as such.  In particular, the "sip.instance" media feature tag
   containing the 3GPP2 MEID URN MUST NOT be included in requests or
   responses intended to convey any level of anonymity, as this could
   violate the user's privacy.  RFC 5626 [4] states:

      One case where a UA could prefer to omit the "sip.instance" media
      feature tag is when it is making an anonymous request or some
      other privacy concern requires that the UA not reveal its
      identity.

   The same concerns apply when using the 3GPP2 MEID URN as an Instance
   ID.  Publication of the 3GPP2 MEID URN to networks that the UA is not
   attached to or the UA does not have a service relationship with is a
   security breach; the "sip.instance" media feature tag MUST NOT be
   forwarded by the service provider's network elements when forwarding
   requests or responses towards the destination UA.  The 3GPP2 MEID URN
   MUST NOT accidentally leak in other contexts, such as and in
   particular when application servers subscribe to user registration
   state using the event package defined in RFC 3680 [3].  Additionally,
   an Instance ID containing the 3GPP2 MEID URN identifies a mobile
   device and not a user.  The Instance ID containing the 3GPP2 MEID URN
   MUST NOT be used alone as an address for a user or as an
   identification credential for a user.  The GRUU mechanism specified
   in RFC 5627 [5] provides a means to create URIs that address the user
   at a specific device or UA.

   Entities that log the Instance ID need to protect them as personally
   identifiable information.  Regulations can require carriers to log
   SIP MEIDs.

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   In order to protect the "sip.instance" media feature tag containing
   the 3GPP2 MEID URN from being tampered with, those REGISTER requests
   containing the 3GPP2 MEID URN MUST be sent using a security mechanism
   such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) as specified in RFC 8446 [8]
   or any other security mechanism that provides equivalent levels of
   protection such as hop-by-hop security based upon IP Security
   (IPsec).

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [2]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
        Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.  Schooler, "SIP:
        Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, DOI 10.17487/RFC3261,
        June 2002, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>.

   [3]  Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event
        Package for Registrations", RFC 3680, DOI 10.17487/RFC3680,
        March 2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3680>.

   [4]  Jennings, C., Ed., Mahy, R., Ed., and F. Audet, Ed., "Managing
        Client-Initiated Connections in the Session Initiation Protocol
        (SIP)", RFC 5626, DOI 10.17487/RFC5626, October 2009,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5626>.

   [5]  Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable User Agent
        URIs (GRUUs) in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
        RFC 5627, DOI 10.17487/RFC5627, October 2009,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5627>.

   [6]  Saint-Andre, P. and J. Klensin, "Uniform Resource Names (URNs)",
        RFC 8141, DOI 10.17487/RFC8141, April 2017,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8141>.

   [7]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key
        Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [8]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
        Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

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   [9]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally Unique
        IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
        DOI 10.17487/RFC4122, July 2005,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4122>.

   [10] Atarius, R., "A URN Namespace for Device Identity and Mobile
        Equipment Identity (MEID)", RFC 8464, DOI 10.17487/RFC8464,
        September 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8464>.

   [11] 3GPP, "IP multimedia call control protocol based on Session
        Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol
        (SDP); Stage 3", 3GPP 24.229, Version 10.13.0, Release 10,
        September 2013,
        <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/24_series/24.229/>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [12] Allen, A., Ed., "Using the International Mobile station
        Equipment Identity (IMEI) Uniform Resource Name (URN) as an
        Instance ID", RFC 7255, DOI 10.17487/RFC7255, May 2014,
        <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7255>.

   [13] 3GPP2, "3G Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) - Stage 1, Version
        4.0", Stage 1, Version 4.0, 3GPP2 S.R0048-A, June 2005.

   [14] 3GPP2, "Voice Call Continuity between IMS and Circuit Switched
        Systems - Version 1.0", Version 1.0, 3GPP2 S.X0042-A 1.0, August
        2008, <https://www.3gpp2.org/Public_html/Specs/
        X.S0042-A_v1.0_080904.pdf>.

Acknowledgments

   This document draws heavily on RFC 8464 [10] and also on the style
   and structure used in RFC 7255 [12].

   The author thanks Andrew Allen for the detailed comments.

Author's Address

   Roozbeh Atarius (editor)

   Email: ratarius@motorola.com