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GSM / 3GPP architecture evolution (up to Rel‑8)

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GSM Rel-96 network architecture


Network element functions

AuC     BSC     BTS     EIR     HLR     MSC     SIM     VLR    


Reference points

     Abis                                        Um    


New features in GSM Phase 1



New features in GSM Phase 2



New features in GSM Phase 2+ Rel-96